Documentation created by Vikram K. Mulligan (firstname.lastname@example.org), Baker laboratory, on 3 Nov 2017. Last updated on 20 Feb 2018.
hbnet scoreterm is currently unpublished. If you use this, please include Vikram K. Mulligan as a coauthor.
Note: This documentation is for the
hbnet design-centric score term. For information on the HBNet mover, an alternative method for creating hydrogen bond networks, see this page.
This scoring term is intended for use during design, to provide a bonus for hydrogen bond netwworks. A network is defined as a set of two or more residues contiguously connected by sidechain-sidechain or sidechain-backbone hydrogen bonds.
While the pairwise hydrogen bonding terms can encourage residue-residue hydrogen bonding, they award the same score to, for example, three independent pairs of hydrogen bonded residues or a contiguous network of six highly-interconnected hydrogen bonded residues. The detection of hydrogen bond networks is an inherently non-pairwise-decomposible problem. The
hbnet score term is therefore a non-pairwise whole-body energy term that produces a bonus that grows ever larger (i.e. more negative) in proportion to the square of the number of residues in the network. If multiple networks are preset, the
hbnet score is the sum of the scores for the individual networks.
Despite being non-pairwise-decomposible, the
hbnet score term is compatible with the packer. It uses a fast node representation of the hydrogen bond network, rapidly updated on the fly, and an efficient connected components algorithm to compute hydrogen bond networks quickly during a packer trajectory. The term's quadratic ramping guides the packer towards solutions with large hydrogen bond networks. The term is currently discrete, however, meaning that it does not provide derivatives that guide the minimizer towards better hydrogen bond networks. For this, the conventional hydrogen bonding terms are relied upon.
hbnet score term is a different approach to the same problem solved by Scott Boyken's HBNet protocol: that of placing residues to form hydrogen bond networks during design. Where Dr. Boyken's approach uses a rapid exhaustive enumeration approach to find rotamer combinations that produce hydrogen bond networks, the use of this score term during conventional design converts the energy optimization problem typically solved by the packer into a constrained optimization problem. In effect, the packer simultaneously tries to optimize the Rosetta energy and maximize the size of hydrogen bond networks. This approach has both advantages and disadvatages compared to the HBNet protocol:
hbnetscore, one can design for favourable hydrophobic packing and favourable polar networks in a single step. In contrast, the HBNet protocol places polar networks first, after which one uses conventional packing to try to place hydrophobic residues around the networks. Where the most favourable networks might not subsequently be amenable to good packing, simultaneous optimization can sometimes find a better compromise.
hbnetscore, simply turn it on (change its weight to a nonzero value) in the scorefunction being used for design. Complex design protocols, such as FastDesign, can place hydrogen bond networks simply by having this score term on.
hbnetscore term, the user can direct the packer to focus more or less on producing extensive hydrogen bond networks, or on optimizing the other things (Van der Waals interactions, hydrophobic interactions, etc.) that the Rosetta scorefunction reflects.
hbnetscore term can be used in conjunction with other score terms to guide the design process, such as the `aspartimide_penalty` score term (penalizing aspartimide-forming amino acid sequences that can hinder chemical synthesis of peptides), the `aa_repeat` score term (penalizing repeat sequences that can impede NMR structure determination), the `netcharge` score term (penalizing deviation from a desired net charge), or the `aa_composition` score term (penalizing deviations from a desired amino acid composition). It is particularly recommended that the
hbnetscoreterm be used with the
buried_unsatisfied_penaltyscoreterm, to avoid hydrogen bond networks that have unsatisfied buried polar groups. This compatibility with many other guidance terms means that one can, for example, solve a problem like this: "I want a well-packed core that's 75% hydrophobic, 25% polar, and contains no more than 3 charged residues and exactly 1 tryptophan, with a net neutral charge, with no repeat sequences or aspartimide-forming sequences, in which the polar residues form good hydrogen bond networks."
hbnetscore term adds no additional steps to the design process. The term itself slows the packer down by about 10-20%, which is a relatively small impact.
hbnetenergy is the best possible. The HBNet protocol, in contrast, does produce a ranked list of the very best hydrogen bond networks given the rotamers considered.
hbnetscore term uses a simplified hydrogen bond detection algorithm for speed, based only on donor-acceptor distances (with no angular consideration). This yields occasional false positives, in which a donor-acceptor pair is in close proximity but oriented incorrectly to form a hydrogen bond, yet it is counted as a hydrogen bonded pair. Plans are in place to address this in the future.
hbnetscore can yield hydrogen bond networks with buried unsatisfied hydrogen bond donors or acceptors, without penalty. There are plans to implement another, similar score term to penalize buried unsatisfied donors and acceptors during design.
hbnetscore term during design results in just one solution. This can be an advantage or disadvantage, depending on the time that one wants to spend selectively optimizing hydrogen bond networks versus letting the software handle the global design problem.
To use the
hbnet score term in design, simply follow the following steps:
hbnetscore term in the scorefunction used for design. A value between 1.0 and 10.0 is recommended. Higher values will promote more extensive networks at the expense of other score terms. Activation of the
hbnetscore term can be done with a weights file, or in RosettaScripts as follows:
<SCOREFXNS> <ScoreFunction name="r15" weights="ref2015.wts" > <Reweight scoretype="hbnet" weight="1.0" /> </ScoreFunction> </SCOREFXNS>
It is recommended that the
buried_unsatisfied_penalty scoreterm also be turned on when the
hbnet scoreterm is used, with a weight ranging from 0.1 to 1.0. This will penalize hydrogen bond networks that have unsatisfied hydrogen bond donors or acceptors in the core. This can be done as follows:
<SCOREFXNS> <ScoreFunction name="r15" weights="ref2015.wts" > <Reweight scoretype="hbnet" weight="1.0" /> <Reweight scoretype="buried_unsatisfied_penalty" weight="1.0" /> </ScoreFunction> </SCOREFXNS>
Design with any mover or protocol that invokes the packer, using the scorefunction defined above. Ensure that the task operations passed to the packer allow polar residues at the relevant design positions (or it will not be possible to put in hydrogen bond networks). FastDesign is particularly advantageous since the rounds of minimization with the softened force field can pull hydrogen bond donors and acceptors into better hydrogen bond-forming positions.
(Recommended). Perform a final round of minimization or relaxation with the
hbnet score term turned off. This ensures that the score term is not forcing unrealistic rotamers that would not be held in place given the hydrogen bonding.
hbnet score term, by default, imposes a quadratically-ramping bonus for larger and larger hydrogen bond networks. It has been suggested that a "diminishing returns" bonus function (e.g. a logarithmic or square root function) would produce better results, avoiding cases in which the packer makes hydrogen bond networks as large as possible at the expense of poor
fa_dun scores or poor packing. Alternative ramping can be specified as of 20 February 2018 in one of two ways:
Globally, at the command line, the flag
-score:hbnet_bonus_function_ramping <string> allows the user to specify alternative ramping schemes. The string can be any one of
For a given scorefunction, from RosettaScripts XML:
Again, in the above, the string can be any one of
<SCOREFXNS> <ScoreFunction name="r15" weights="ref2015.wts" > <Reweight scoretype="hbnet" weight="1.0" /> <Set hbnet_bonus_function_ramping="<string>" /> </ScoreFunction> </SCOREFXNS>
logarithmic. (In PyRosetta or Rosetta C++ code, the
hbnet_bonus_function_rampingoption in an
EnergyMethodOptionsobject can be set, and the
EnergyMethodOptionsobject can be passed to the
If no ramping scheme is set, the default is
Another approach is to provide a bonus up to a certain size of network, beyond which the
hbnet score term provides no further bonus. The maximum network size can be set in one of two ways:
Globally, at the command line, the flag
-score:hbnet_max_network_size' <int> allows the user to specify the maximum network size that receives a bonus, beyond which the bonus function will be completely flat. A value of 0 (the default) indicates no limit.
For a given scorefunction, from RosettaScripts XML:
Again, a value of 0 indicates no limit.
<SCOREFXNS> <ScoreFunction name="r15" weights="ref2015.wts" > <Reweight scoretype="hbnet" weight="1.0" /> <Set hbnet_max_network_size="<int>" /> </ScoreFunction> </SCOREFXNS>
If no maximum network size is set, the default is
0 (i.e. unlimited).
hbnet score term is fully compatible with symmetry with no special setup required.
core::pack::guidance_scoreterms::hbnet_energy, and is located in